Bone is a mineralized connective tissue that exhibits four types of cells. Bone classification and structure anatomy and physiology. Bone matrix and cells bone matrix osseous tissue is a connective tissue and like all connective tissues. Bone tissue is continuously formed and remodeled throughout life. Bone exerts important functions in the body, such as locomotion, support and protection of soft tissues, calcium and phosphate storage, and harboring of bone marrow 3, 4. B anderson, in encyclopedia of food sciences and nutrition second edition, 2003. Connective tissue chondroblasts lay down the matrix, become chondrocytes when. Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and external structure. Continual addition of new bone tissue and removal of old bone tissue occurs at both periosteal and endosteal surfaces of the bone. The structure of the muscle belly itself is presented in the current chapter. It can be found under the periosteum and in the diaphyses of long bones, where it provides.
Compact bone is the denser, stronger of the two types of bone tissue figure 6. Structure and function of bone the cells of mature bone osteocytes mature bone cells maintain the protein and mineral content of the matrix cause the release of calcium ions from the bone. Osteocytes, the living cells of bone tissue, form the mineral matrix of bones. Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes renewal and repair throughout life through the process of bone remodelling. Bone tissue, also called osseous tissue, is classified as either compact bone, or spongy bone depending on how the bone matrix and cells are organized. Structure of bones and teeth bones and teeth are heterogeneous, hierarchical, composite structures mckee et al. Later discussions in this chapter will show that bone is also dynamic in that its shape adjusts to accommodate stresses. Inorganic components ca, p, mg, k, na hyproxyapatit crystals 65%. Bone structure bones form structurally and functionally complex system. Define the following terms, used in the case and also in associated questions. Mineralization of bones and teeth cornell university. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility. Bones are considered organs because they contain various types of tissue, such as blood, connective tissue, nerves, and bone tissue. The histological structure, mode of ossification, crosssectional appearance, and degree of maturity influences the classification of bony tissue.
Compact bone is dense so that it can withstand compressive forces, while spongy cancellous bone has open spaces and supports shifts in weight distribution. The sesamoid bones protect tendons by helping them overcome compressive forces. Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure form and function job. While a complete blood count provides information regarding possible treatmentrelated effects reflected in the peripheral blood, morphological evaluation of bone marrow cytology and paraffin sections provides information about bone marrow tissue architecture that otherwise would be missed by examination of peripheral blood alone. The bones of the skeleton provide mechanical support for joints, tendons and ligaments, protect vital organs from damage, and act as a reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the preservation of normal mineral homoeostasis. Pdf bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and. These bones form in tendons the sheaths of tissue that connect bones to muscles where a great deal of pressure is generated in a joint. A sesamoid bone is a small, round bone that, as the name suggests, is shaped like a sesame seed. Bone architecture is made up of two types of bone tissue. Chapter 7 bone structure and function flashcards quizlet. A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals.
Initially, the bone achieves its increase in size and shape through growth increase in size. There are more than 200 different types of tissues of the human body and all of these may be categorized into one of four groups. Pdf on jan 1, 2016, bhuvan nagpal and others published structure of bone find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Compact bone or cortical bone forms the hard external layer of all bones and.
The names imply that the two types differ in density, or how tightly the tissue is packed together. Blood cartilage tendon bone vessels organ support the mechanical strength of connective tissue varies widely, from the sti. There are three types of cells that contribute to bone homeostasis. Bone tissue structural component of bones specialized connective tissue for support and protection composition.
At the nanometer scale, bone tissue is composed of inorganic and organic phases and water. We first begin by describing the hierarchical levels of bone structure anatomy and then describe how these levels are constructed by bone cells removing and adding matrix physiology. Summary bones and skeletal tissues ch6 summary cells the living units ch3. There are four main tissues in the body epithelium, muscle, connective tissue and nervous tissue. Cancellous bone, also known as spongy or trabecular bone, is one of the two types of bone tissue found in the human body. The explosion of papers at the nanoscale precludes. Normal structure, function, and histology of the bone. The diaphysis, or shaft, is the long tubular portion of long bones. The physiological and metabolic dependencies in the body have a significant influence on the biomechanical characteristics of the bone tissue, of which bones are mostly made. A hard outer layer that is dense, strong, and durable. Bone tissue consists of two types within the same specific bone, e.
Loose connective tissue holds organs in place and attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues dense connective tissue helps attach muscles to bones and link bones together at joints specialized connective tissue encompasses a number of different tissues with specialized cells and unique ground. There are several different types of tissues in bones, including two types of osseous tissues. Cancellous bone is found at the ends of long bones, as well as in the. Bone is also a good starting point because it illustrates the principle of hierarchical structure function that is common to all biological tissues. Bone exerts important functions in the body, such as locomotion, support and protection of so. In addition, bone is a major source of inorganic ions, and actively participates in the bodys calciumphosphate balance. Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process.
Bone is the dynamic tissue so its composition varies according to the regulating factors. Most bones contain compact and spongy osseous tissue, but their distribution and concentration vary based on the bone s overall function. Cellscaffold interactions triad in the context of bone tissue engineering, with. In addition, there are several other tissues present in bones.
Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Also known as compact bone, this dense outer layer provides support and protection for the inner cancellous structure. Histology a microscopic study of human body tissues. Sketch of the sagittal section of a molar tooth showing the. Human body cells are grouped by their similarities in structure and function into tissues. Bone is hard and many of its functions depend on that characteristic hardness.
It is in the epiphyses where red blood cells are formed. The endosteum is a membranous structure covering the inner surface of cortical bone, trabecular bone, and the blood vessel canals volkmans canals present in bone. The internal and external structure of a bone will change as stress increases or decreases so that the bone is an ideal size and weight for the amount of activity it endures. Bone matrix and cells bone matrix osseous tissue is a connective tissue and like all connective tissues contains relatively few cells and large amounts of extracellular matrix. Compact bone relatively dense connective tissue white, smooth, solid 80% of total bone mass. Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by. This crosssection of a flat bone shows the spongy bone diploe covered on either side by a layer of compact bone.
Initially, the bone achieves its increase in size and shape through. Osteoblasts are bone forming cell, osteoclasts resorb or break down bone, and osteocytes are mature bone cells. Exercise, nutrition, hormones, and bone tissue anatomy. The periosteum is tightly attached to the outer cortical surface of bone by thick collagenous fibers, called sharpeys fibers, which extend into underlying bone tissue. The epiphysis plural, epiphyses is the expanded end of a long bone. Bone tissue structure and functions of human tissue types. In addition to discussing the cellular constituents of bone and the architectural arrangement of their products, this article will also address the embryology and mechanisms of ossification as well. A tissue membrane is a thin layer or sheet of cells that covers the outside of the body for example, skin, the organs for example, pericardium, internal passageways that lead to the exterior of the body for example, abdominal mesenteries, and the lining of the moveable joint cavities. A case study on bone tissue structure and repair 1. Connective tissue can generate a range of mechanical strengths. Bone is a specialized form of ct that serves as both a tissue and an organ within higher vertebrates. The skeletal system is made up of the skeleton and the cartilages, ligaments, and other connective tissues that stabilize them. Trabecular tissue is the more metabolically active because it has about eight to 10 times more total surface area than cortical tissue.
Bone tissue osseous tissue differs greatly from other tissues in the body. Spongy bone is made of tiny plates called trabeculae, which serve as struts, giving the spongy bone strength. Structure, function, and factors that influence bone cells. On a weight basis, bone is approximately 60 percent inorganic, 30 percent organic, and 10 percent water,3 whereas on a volume basis, these proportions are about 40 percent, 35 percent, and 25 percent. Spongy bone tissue provides considerable strength with reduced weight.256 940 977 198 89 1130 575 1330 1419 1051 967 478 1499 68 839 289 74 653 823 129 522 1167 382 1383 1472 1171 225 454 483 790