Saxony, germany 1911 encyclopedia britannica bible. Electorate of saxony saxethuringen duke ernest was the senior of the two wettins who divided the electorate in 1485, with his branch holding the title of princeelector although only for a few generations. Before 1806 saxony was the electorate of saxony in the holy roman empire. Saxony historical region, duchy, and kingdom, europe britannica.
The troops of electoral saxony during the thirty years war. Saxony has a long history as a duchy, an electorate of the holy roman empire the electorate of saxony, and eventually as a kingdom the kingdom of saxony. The original duchy of saxony was the lands of the saxon people in the northwestern part of presentday germany, namely, the modern german state of lower saxony as well as westphalia and western saxonyanhalt, not the modern german. The ernestine branch receives wittenberg, small parts of the march of meissen. This 44page pamphlet is an invaluable addition to the small body of english sources on the thirty years war. Hanover, german hannover, former state of northwestern germany, first an electorate 16921806 of the holy roman empire, then a kingdom 181466, and finally a prussian province 18661945. This book brings the historical context of the reformation to life.
Under their rule, saxonys capital dresden turned into florence on the elbe river, with magnificent architecture and amazing art collections. Sachsische geschichte saxon history, from hendrik eichler, in german. Kingdoms of germany saxony saxons the history files. The danger to germany from the hussites induced frederick to ally himself with emperor sigismund.
Ernst was born in meissen, the second son but fourth in order of birth of the eight children of frederick ii, elector of saxony and margaret of austria, sister of frederick iii. Its monarchy was overthrown in 1918 and a republican form of government was established under its current name subsequent to germanys defeat in world war i. Consiliarii electoralis saxonici, iurisprudentia forensis romano. Located in the center of europe, it borders the netherlands, belgium, luxembourg, and france on the west. The name saxons is derived from the seax, a knife used by the tribe as a weapon. In 1433 the wettins finally concluded peace with the hussites and in 1438 frederick led saxon forces to. Frederick was born in leipzig, the eldest of the seven children of frederick i, elector of saxony, and catherine of brunswick and lunenburg after the death of his father in 1428 he took over the government together with his younger brothers william iii, henry and sigismund. In 56, the golden bull, the principal constitutional document of the holy roman empire of the german nation, granted the newly created duchy of saxonywittenberg the status of an electorate. Three british monarchs were subsequently to become electoral princes of hanover king george i was the first. This breach was widened when flacius began to make personal attacks on augustus, to prophesy his speedy downfall, and to incite duke john. Dresden, 11 february 1586 was elector of saxony from 1553 to 1586. Upon the extinction of the house of ascania, it was feoffed to the margraves of meissen from the wettin dynasty in 1423, who moved the ducal. And the electorates of saxony, bavaria, the palatinate, hanover, and brunswick wolfenbuttel classic reprint mavor, william on.
Saxony article about saxony by the free dictionary. Kurfurstentum sachsen, also kursachsen, sometimes referred to as upper saxony, was a state of the holy roman empire established when emperor charles iv raised the ascanian duchy of saxewittenberg to the status of an electorate by the golden bull of 56. Settlers descending from the stem duchies of saxony, franconia, bavaria as well as thuringia and flanders, moved into the margravate of meissen between the elbe and saale rivers, formerly populated by polabian slavs. Upon the extinction of the house of ascania, it was enfeoffed to the margraves of meissen from the wettin dynasty in 1423. List of books and articles about german history online. The electorate remained a focal point of religious strife throughout the reformation and to the. A map of saxony within the holy roman empire and europe ca.
The golden bull of 56 raised the duke of saxewittenberg to the permanent rank of elector, with the right to participate in the election of the holy roman. List of rulers of saxony simple english wikipedia, the free. In 1455 ernst was briefly kidnapped, along with his brother albert, by the. Saxony, german sachsen, french saxe, any of several major territories in german history. Elector frederick the wise of saxony was much more than simply martin luthers. Halberstadt, saxony, 8 july 90physics, logic, mathematics. Its monarchy was overthrown in 1918 and a republican form of government was established under its current name subsequent to. Saxony owes its unusual wealth in fruit partly to the care of the elector. To search an expression, simply put quotation marks around it. A search for 1 franc is more precise than 1 franc you may use an asterisk as a wildcard. Sofia khan is not obliged is the first fictional work by ayisha malik.
Detailed information about the coin 112 thaler, johann georg iv. Swobodny stat sakska is a landlockit state o germany, contingent wi brandenburg, saxony anhalt, thuringie, bavarie, the czech republic an poland. All coins from the electorate of saxony albertinian line, presented with pictures, descriptions and more useful information. Kurfurstentum sachsen, also kursachsen was a state of the holy roman empire established when emperor charles iv raised the ascanian duchy of saxewittenberg to the status of an electorate by the golden bull of 56. Deutschland, officially federal republic of germany, republic 2015 est. In the 16th century, saxony was the motherland of reformation which influenced world history greatly. From the midth century, the duke of saxony was recognized as an imperial elector a prince with the right to participate in choosing the holy. It is the tentlairgest german state in aurie, wi 18,4 square kilometres 7,109 sq mi, an the saxt maistpopulous 4. When emperor francis ii was defeated by napoleon at the battle of austerlitz and the empire was dissolved the electorate became an independent kingdom. Founded by the saxon elector august in 1556, the library initially contained very. Furstenzug, dresden, germany ernst was born in meissen, the second son but fourth in order of birth of the eight children of frederick ii, elector of saxony and margaret of austria, sister of frederick. Recent research has revealed more information about alberts life and writings. Bibles, theological and historical works, juristic literature, medieval books. Locatit in the middle o an erstwhile germanspeakin pairt o europe, the history o the state o saxony spans mair than a millennium.
Each of the identifiable areas will be dealt with separately. Information about the first jewish settlers in saxony dates back to the tenth century. It haes been a medieval duchy, an electorate o the holy roman empire, a kinrick an frae 1918 tae 1952, an then again frae 1990, a republic. A survey of the development of german history since 1815 by a. Kingdom of saxony simple english wikipedia, the free. Sachsen, state in germany, formerly an electorate and kingdom. Father of ernest and albert, founders of the ernestine continuing below and albertine saxon lines see section albertine dukes of saxony above in this article. He was the eldest son of frederick iii, landgrave of thuringia, and catherine of henneberg. Sep 03, 2018 the kingdom of saxony began its life in 1806 as nearly 500 years of an electorate of saxony came to an end. From now on all territories including meissen, lausitz, thuringia are known as the electorate of saxony. Only a small area of saxony lying east of the neisse river and centered around the town of reichenau now called bogatynia, was annexed by. Romanian edition carpzov, benedict, mylius, andreas, electorate, saxony on.
Coins from the electorate of saxony albertinian line numista. The troops of electoral saxony during the thirty years war by. The rivalry between saxony and brandenburg after 1701 the kingdom of prussia was a decisive factor in later saxon history, as was the election 1697 of augustus ii augustus ii, 16701733, king of poland 16971733 and, as frederick augustus i, elector of saxony 16941733. A study in the dissolution of the bourgeois party system in weimar germany larry eugene jones 336 the development of nazism in the landscape of socialism and nationalism. Northern saxony was one of most fertile parts of germany, though fertility diminishes toward the ore mountains of the south where saxony long had important mineral production. The electorate of saxony, sometimes referred to as upper saxony, was a state of the holy roman empire. Linguistically speaking, it is a regiolect or regional vernacular rather than a dialect in the strict sense. From reading the rest of the page, looks like john frederick i is the main leader of saxony. Ruled jointly in saxony with his brothers, but was the sole holder of the electorate. In the 18th century, elector augustus the strong and his son were also kings of poland. The history of what became the kingdom of saxony konigreich sachsen in the german empire of 1871 is complex.
The province was created in 1816 out of the following territories. The new and more honourable title of elector of saxony now superseded his other titles, and the name saxony gradually spread over his other possessions, which included meissen and thuringia as well as saxewittenberg, and thus the earlier history of the electorate and kingdom of saxony is the early history of the mark of meissen, the name of. Remembering the year 1923 in saxon history benjamin lapp 322 saxony, 19241930. To duke maximilian of bavaria was conveyed the electorate, together with the upper palatinate, to be hereditary in his family of the line of william, for which he, on the other hand, was to surrender to the emperor the account of the,000,000 florins which he had made for the execution of the. Coins from the electorate of saxony albertinian line. Saxony historical region, duchy, and kingdom, europe.
Seutter on the contrary, many european regions, states, and principalities owed their prosperity to mining. List of rulers of saxony simple english wikipedia, the. Saxony in german history university of michigan press. Even though they were electors of hanover, they rarely chose to visit the city. Page 391 at a later day the number of the campfollowers was increased beyond all belief by the multiplication of children, so that in the last years of the war the numbers in the camp must be placed at three and four times that of the combatants, as appears in an example taken from the history of the war. After world war ii the state was administratively abolished. During the rule of the german emperor otto i 936973, jews lived in the towns of magdeburg, halle, erfurt, and merseburg, among other pla. Only a small area of saxony lying east of the neisse river and centered around the town of reichenau now called bogatynia, was annexed by poland.
Over centuries, large areas broke into smaller states, boundaries changed position, and regions changed names. After the last duke of saxonywittenberg died, in 1423, the title of duke and. In 1708, history remembers how the city rose in status, becoming the electorate of brunswickluneberg. Consiliarii electoralis saxonici, iurisprudentia forensis romanosaxonica, secundum ordinem constitutionum d. The first care of the new elector was to come to terms with john frederick, and to strengthen his own hold upon the electoral position. At the time of the late roman empire, the saxon tribes could be found occupying a. Frederick i, elector of saxony 811428, ernest, elector of saxony 14641486 and frederick ii, elector of saxony 14281464. The history of saxony anhalt began with old saxony, which was conquered by charlemagne in 804 and transformed into the duchy of saxony within the carolingian empire. The wikipedia page for the schmalkaldic war list the duchy of saxony and the electorate of saxony as opposing sides of the war, each with their own monarch maurice is the duke of saxony, john frederick i is the elector. The history of saxony consists of what was originally a small tribe living on the north sea. Amalie of zweibruckenbirkenfeld public domain the first queen consort of saxony was his wife, amalie of zweibruckenbirkenfeld. Media in category history of saxony the following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. The electorate of saxony was a state of the holy roman empire established when emperor. This meant that the princes who ruled saxony were princeelector and could help elect a new holy roman emperor.
Aug 10, 2018 thueringische geschichtsquellen, fuenfter band. The history of saxony consists of what was originally a small tribe living on the north sea between the elbe and eider river in the present holstein. The text was published by twenty7 books in 2015 and is a romance fiction that explores the trials and tribulations of dating as a young muslim woman living in london. The province of saxony was one of the richest regions of prussia, with highly developed agriculture and industry. Lucien rousselot troops of electoral saxony in the 30. During the 18th century, the electorate of saxony was a rich state of the holy roman empire. Among them was the electorate of saxony, long a state of the former holy roman empire. A preacher named matthias flacius held an influential position in ducal saxony, and taught a form of lutheranism different from that taught in the electorate of saxony.
Saxones, was first mentioned by the greek author ptolemy. He consequently belonged to the albertine branch of the wettin family. Augustus was born in freiberg, the youngest child and third but second surviving son of heinrich of saxony and katharina of mecklenburg. It was established when emperor charles iv raised the ascanian duchy of saxewittenberg to the status of an electorate by the golden bull of 56. The death of his older brother frederick 1451 made him the new heir apparent to the position of elector of saxony. Kurfurstentum trier or kurtrier, traditionally known in english by its french name of treves, was an ecclesiastical principality of the holy roman empire that existed from the end of the 9th to the early 19th century. German civil society in the making, 1790s1820s by ian f. For the original article on albert of saxony see dsb, vol. Saxony went on to become one of the socalled stem duchies of the german kingdom and subsequently the holy roman empire which formed out of the eastern partition of the carolingian empire. Ernst was born in meissen, the second son but fourth in order of birth of the eight children of frederick ii, elector of saxony and margaret of austria, sister of frederick iii, holy roman emperor. The upper saxon dialect evolved as a new variety in the course of the medieval german ostsiedlung eastern colonisation from about 1100 onwards. In 1932, the province was enlarged with the addition of the. Its capital was the city of dresden, and its modern successor state is the free state of saxony before 1806 saxony was the electorate of saxony in the holy roman empire.
And the electorates of saxony, bavaria, the palatinate, hanover. Between scylla and charybdis military history books. Under their rule, saxonys capital dresden turned into florence on the. Current state of saxony has little change from the kingdom of saxony sachsen during the german empire. After the death of his uncle william i, margrave of meissen in 1407, he was made governor of the margraviate of meissen together with his brother william ii as well as with his cousin frederick iv son of balthasar, until their possessions were divided in 1410 and 1415. The kingdom of saxony began its life in 1806 as nearly 500 years of an electorate of saxony came to an end. This title focuses on the armies raised by electoral saxony and examines uniforms, standards, brief descriptions of units in action, and provides lists of saxon regiments, both infantry and horse. The hostility between the albertines and the ernestines gave augustus serious trouble. Saxony konigreich kingdom timeline genealogy familysearch. Rudolf is successor, rudolf ii, gains the title of princeelector and his duchy is. Halberstadt, saxony, 8 july 90 physics, logic, mathematics.490 986 825 37 1433 824 882 1499 934 1392 714 856 1124 1357 254 1176 749 1524 267 318 1102 42 404 349 152 935 171 615 1279 92 291 351 180 496 720 1339 780 821 846 1253 1234 741 745